Main Outcome Measures
Abbreviations and Acronyms:logMAR (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution), NYU (New York University), VA (visual acuity)
Visual Acuity Measurements
Sample Size and Statistical Analysis
Application Usability and Acceptability
|Capability||Psychological||Did you feel confident using the application? How easy was it to use the application?|
|Physical||How do you think you performed on the testing?|
|Opportunity||Social||When using the application, were you alone or were others around? Did you require assistance?|
|Physical||What were the challenges of using the application? What were your favorite features of the application? What features did you dislike? How does this compare with in-office testing?|
|Motivation||Automatic||What would encourage you to use this application more often? What would prevent you from using this application? Did you have any safety or security concerns?|
|Reflective||What would you say are the benefits of using this application? What do you think the value of the test at home is? What do you think the value of the test at home is? For whom do you think it is most appropriate to use this application? If you had to use this application repeatedly, is there anything you would do differently? Do you have any additional comments?|
|No. of participants||125|
|No. of eyes||244|
|Visual acuity (logMAR)||0.143 ± 0.213|
|iPhone users||91 (79.8)|
|Android users||23 (20.2)|
|Mean ± standard deviation||47.89 ± 21.08|
NYU Langone Eye Test Application for iPhone versus Rosenbaum Near Card
NYU Langone Eye Test Application for Android versus Rosenbaum Near Card
|Device by Conditions||Agreement with Rosenbaum Card (Mean ± 95% Limits of Agreement, logMAR)||Correlation with Rosenbaum Card (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient)|
conditions (50 participants)
|iPhone||0.008 ± 0.16||0.90|
|Android||0.001 ± 0.13||0.92|
conditions (75 participants)
|iPhone||0.024 ± 0.35||0.66|
|Android||0.016 ± 0.36||0.63|
Usability and Acceptability
- Lim L.A.
- Frost N.A.
- Powell R.J.
- Hewson P.
- Supplemental Figure 1
- Supplemental Figure 2
- Supplemental Figure 8
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Supplemental material available at www.ophthalmologyscience.org.
Presented as a poster at: American Academy of Ophthalmology Annual Meeting, November 2021, New Orleans, Louisiana.
All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE disclosures form.
The author(s) have made the following disclosure(s): A.W.: Employee – NYU Langone Health; Patent – 7860287, 20080052112, 20110169862, 20080059241, 20070292012
L.A.A.-A.: Consultant – Bausch & Lomb, Topcon, World Care Clinical; Financial support – Mother Cabrini Foundation, Save Vision Foundation; Nonfinancial support – Topcon; Medical advisory board – AI Optics, Sensory Sciences LLC, Virtual Field; Non-voting board member – Save Vision Foundation; Equity owner – GlobeChek
Lama Adnan Al-Aswad, MD, MPH, an editorial board member of this journal, was recused from the peer-review process of this article and had no access to information regarding its peer-review.
HUMAN SUBJECTS: Human subjects were included in this study. The human ethics committees at NYU Langone Health approved the study. All research adhered to the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki. All participants provided informed consent.
No animal subjects were included in this study.
Conception and design: Iskander, Patel, Wronka, Al-Aswad
Analysis and interpretation: Iskander, Hu, Sood, Ogunsola, Chen, Elgin, Al-Aswad
Data collection: Iskander, Hu, Sood, Heilenbach, Sanchez, Ogunsola, Chen, Patel, Wronka, Al-Aswad
Obtained funding: N/A; Study was performed as part of regular employment duties at NYU Langone Health. No additional funding was provided.
Overall responsibility: Iskander, Hu, Sood, Elgin, Al-Aswad
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